Religious Space and the Shaping of Gender Encounters in African Christianity
Zur Modernität rußländischer Universitäten und ihrer Professorenschaft
Egalitarian Structures and Cosmopolitan Outlook. ‚Modernity’ in the Professoriate and Universities of the Russian Empire
Russian universities were explicitly modelled on the „European example“. This article traces that productive adaptation of a foreign model to the Tsarist Empire, a development resulting in universities more egalitarian than their model, e. g. German universities where many Russian professors received their training. Though designed to educate and train, the universities gradually included research, eventually making this a major requirement for an academic career. Alhough they were state employees, just as their German peers, Russian professors were more eager to serve ‚society’ as opposed to the ‚state’. Their demands for university reform and a constitutional system resulted from the (relative) freedom they had experienced abroad. Final proof of their independence, in regard to both the Russian state and their German teachers, was given during World War I, when many professors kept aloof from chauvinistic undertakings and even declined to exclude enemy aliens from (honorary) membership in Russian academic institutions.