Labeling the Religious Self and Others: Reciprocal Perceptions of Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, and Confucians in Medieval and Early Modern Times
Die Sopade und die Giustizia e Libertà im Vergleich
This article argues that the Sopade, the exil executive of the German Socialdemocratic Party, and Giustizia e Libertà, the Italian socialist group founded in Paris in 1929, elaborated similar interpretations of fascism out of common theoretical impulses from for instance the French or Belgian socialist avant-garde. Their most influential leaders, e.g. Rudolf Hilferding and Friedrich Stampfer on the one hand, Carlo Rosselli and Gaetano Salvemini on the other, believed in the momentous character of fascism in Europe. They considered it a barbaric, civilisation-breaking regime, and at the same time stressed the unique chance for humanist and social rebirth antifascism offered. Being in control of large portions of the respective socialdemocratic press, they were, despite organisational and political setbacks in exile, able to strongly influence the German and Italian antifascism by pleading for the assimilation of an antidogmatic and antireformist, liberal and federalist socialism.